I. Raw materials. The main raw materials for mushroom cultivation are straw of crops (such as rice straw, wheat straw, corn stalk, rape stalk, etc.), by-products of agricultural products processing, weeds and manure of poultry and domestic animals, etc. In addition, a certain amount of mineral elements are added.
Second, the formula. (0.25 mu planting area, net sowing 1000 square feet as the unit of measurement)
Raw material unit quantity Raw material unit quantity
Fungus seed bottle 100 farmyard manure quintal 40-50
Dried rice (wheat straw) kg 3000-3500 Urea kg 20-25
Mushroom fertilizer 200 catties of lime 50-80 catties
Oil withered catty 200-250 mushroom film catty 18
Where there is no urea, available n, p, k for 15-15-15 compound 60 pounds, or n, p, k for 13-5-7 compound fertilizer 120 pounds instead.
(2), pile fermentation
1, pile material time: at the latest should be before September 10. After the rice harvest, promptly grab the sunny day to dry the straw, as soon as possible, as early as possible pile material.
2. Method of piling: Build a pile in the paddy field where it is decided to grow mushrooms. The pile should be 2m wide, 1.5m high and unlimited in length. Technical requirements: The straw should be dry and should not be made of moldy straw. The first day of the pile, the straw should be fully pre-wetted, before building the pile, mushroom special fertilizer, oil blight, urea and so on are mixed evenly. Never note: Urea should not be mixed with lime. When building the pile, lay straw first and change the straw shed to loose, then splash manure and water, then sprinkle ingredients (auxiliary materials). The thickness of each layer of straw is 15-20㎝, and the total pile is 10-12 layers. The top of the pile is built in the shape of a ridge to prevent rainwater from entering. Material around the edge to pile straight, not under the big on the small or big belly thin waist, must be stacked standard, in order to facilitate fermentation.
3, turning pile: composting time 22-25 days, turning pile requirements: must be cultivated material up and down, raw and cooked turn evenly, so that the inside to the outside, around to the middle, the upper to the lower turn, the lower to the upper turn, turn even pile straight. The first time to turn the pile, while turning the pile and sprinkle lime. If the material is dry, the lime can be turned into water and splashed on the material. Build pile specifications: the 1st-2nd time to turn the pile, the material pile width should be narrowed by 10㎝ each time; the 3rd-4th time, each time to widen 10㎝, its height remains the same, the length is shortened. Water content requirement of culture material: calculated by the number of drops of water between the fingers of an adult squeezing a handful of straw, about 15-20 drops when building the pile, 10-15 drops when turning the pile for the first time, 5-7 drops when turning the pile for the second time, 4-5 drops when turning the pile for the third time, and 3-4 drops when turning the pile for the fourth time. Set up venting requirements: from the third time to turn the pile, in the middle of the pile should be set up two rows of 1m × 0.8m spacing, 10cm diameter venting holes to improve the ventilation situation, conducive to fermentation and the exclusion of ammonia. The water content of the material after the pile is good is about 60-65%, with a firm grip and 2-4 drops of water between fingers; ⑤ ph value is between 7.5 and 7.8.
1. Soil requirements for mushroom seeding rice fields. General loamy soil, clay or loamy sandy soil is suitable, not sandy soil.
2. Build scaffolding and open compartments. Standard of building scaffolding: Take 100 bottles of mushroom seeds as an example, a shed can be built. The shed is 10m wide, 15m long, can open 7-8 compartments, or build two sheds, the shed is 8m wide, 10m long, can open 6-7 compartments. The walkway is left between each compartment, the side compartments on both sides are 50-60㎝ wide, the ridge of the compartment is 10㎝ wide, the net compartment surface is 40-50㎝ wide when the ridge is removed, the middle compartment surface is 110-120㎝ wide, and the walkway is 40㎝ wide. The height of the top of the trellis is 1.7-1.8m, and the net sowing surface is 68-70%. If only one shed is built, the top of the shed should be opened in the middle of the exhaust hole (skylight), no less than two, each exhaust hole diameter 30-40㎝, exhaust chimney height 1.1-1.2m. The shed is covered with special black film. The two ends of the door can be left in and out and ventilation, and hung on the grass fan shade.
3、Material on the bed. The day before sowing, use clean wicker basket to pick and transport the fermented material to the open compartment surface, and pile the material into a ridge of red pota. When sowing, shake the material loose, mix it well, shake it flat, and make the culture material 15-18㎝ in thickness according to the width of the compartment, and generally the thickness is not less than 12㎝ and not more than 20㎝. The thinner the culture material, the lower the yield. If the culture material is too thick, it will cause waste.
① Seed treatment before sowing: the night before seed hollowing, to use 75% dichlorvos, according to the ratio of drug: water = 1:1, fumigation of the seed, in order to prevent the contamination of the seed bottle and cotton plugs. Before hollowing out the seed to use potassium permanganate solution, the bottle mouth, bottle scrubbing disinfection, hollowing out the seed used tools and containers to clean and disinfection. After hollowing out the seeds, divided into soybean size pellets, not rubbing.
②Sowing method. According to the area of each compartment, compartment quantitative sowing, first hollow half of the seeds, and then hollow the other half of the sowing cover. Specific method: like scattering grain, the seeds will be evenly scattered in the material bed according to the compartment. The seeds should be sown evenly, after the first sowing, use the grass pick hook to gently hit the bed, let part of the seeds shake off in the second layer of culture material, while the other half of the seeds will be evenly sown on the surface of the bed to seal the bed, and use the back of the grass pick to pat the bed to ensure that the bed is smooth.
③ Cover with clean newspaper. After sowing the best in the bed surface covered with newspaper, sow a compartment cover a compartment, to facilitate the development of bacteria.
5, after sowing management. After sowing the management focus: ventilation, cooling, moisture, anti-microbial and replanting.
1, mulching time. The principle of mastering the mulching time: "material to not wait for the time, time to not wait for the material". That is, after sowing, mycelium down to eat 2/3 of the material, regardless of sowing time can be mulched; about 10 days after sowing, at the latest no more than 15 days, regardless of mycelium eating material deep or shallow can also be mulched.
2、Method of mulching. Shovel off the topsoil on the aisle, use the second layer of soil to dig over the cuttings fine, digging while mulching.
3, the requirements of the mulch. Soil requirements under the coarse on the fine, coarse soil as small as beans, as large as pigeon eggs. Mulch thickness 4-5cm. Soil dryness to moisture content of 50-55% is appropriate, that is, "pinch flat, rub round, not sticky hands or slightly sticky hands" is appropriate, the soil material on the dry side of the wet mulch effect are not good. Soil material must be covered flat, not too thin or too thick. Mulch material using loam, sandy loam, clay, clay loam can be, remember not to use sand.
4, mulch before the bed treatment. Before mulching bed to lay flat, covered with newspaper should be removed from the newspaper, with clothianidin 2 two, dichlorvos 2 two, mixed with 30 kg of water (a back water), in the bed evenly sprayed to eliminate miscellaneous bacteria, generally 100 bottles of strains of bed area sprayed a back water can be.
5, after the mulch management. The focus of management is ventilation, insulation, moisture, anti-mycorrhizal. Open both ends of the film ventilation during the day, and close in the evening. If the temperature is high, the night can not be closed; if the temperature is low, the day can not uncover the film. If the soil layer is dry, less ventilation, more moisture, indeed, in case of dry days too dry, available water spray bed, keep the mulch layer moist. If the soil layer is wet, and in case of flooding, it is necessary to ventilate more and moisturize less. If miscellaneous bacteria appear in the soil layer, use Kemulin with water to spray the central disease group.
(5) Mushroom emergence and mushroom harvesting
Mushroom emergence management: When mushrooms emerge, when mycelium is twisted and pea-sized mushroom buds generally appear in the mushroom bed, a small amount of water can be sprayed, and after 1-2 days, when the mushroom buds are the size of beans, the amount of water spraying should be increased. Generally, after mushroom picking, except for rainy days, water can be sprayed, especially on sunny days, more water should be sprayed after picking. The technique of water spraying is very important, not more spraying and not less spraying. The specific standard depends on the day, the mushroom and the dryness of the soil.
Mushroom picking: Mushroom picking is not based on size, but on age. Generally, pea-sized young mushrooms can be seen until harvesting time: in the first 3 tides, 2-3 days can be harvested, after 4 tides, when the temperature is low, 3-5 days can be harvested, and after January, 5-7 days can be harvested. But in November, the high temperature season, a day to pick more than twice. In short, insist on the principle of "picking young but not old, picking early but not late".
Method of mushroom picking: The first 3 tides adopt the method of twisting mushrooms around, and the 4th tide adopts the method of pulling mushrooms.
Handling of mushroom picking: The mushrooms should be picked lightly and transported lightly. Cut off the mud feet with a knife while picking mushrooms and cut them flat without leaving mud feet.